Flex Teaching FAQs

From eLearning Wiki

Below are answers to some commonly asked questions about flexible teaching and the template sites.

Course Management

If I divide my students into groups for in-class meetings, what is the best way to do that?

Please see our video and email template that demonstrates how to split your students into groups and notify them.
Instructors may choose to divide their students in any way that best suits their course objectives as long as the division does not create problems with equity. Students may be divided randomly, by first letter of last name, or any other means selected by the instructor. If adjusted classroom capacities permit, it may be a good idea to make sure that a few extra seats are available for students who need to temporarily switch meeting days. If you wish to be truly random, Isidore has a tool - “Randomly” - that will evenly divide your class roster based on the number of desired groups. In class with students from a variety of majors, you may consider groups that represent that variety to ensure a more diverse group and class discussion. Once instructors have split their classes into groups they should communicate with their students ahead of the term so that they are aware of which days they can attend.

What does it mean to say all classes should be fully available for remote students?
While many students are coming back to campus in the fall and in-person instruction will be extremely important there will likely be times where some students may be forced to quarantine themselves during the semester, removing their option to attend in-person for a period of time. Faculty will need to do their best to accommodate students in their classes during these periods so that they can continue to participate in class. There will also be some students that will never return campus during the fall that will only be able to join classes remotely.

How do students meet in small groups in class?
This depends in part on the lengths of the group meetings and the nature of the interactions. Current medical guidance is that interactions in proximities of less than six feet lasting less than fifteen minutes pose little risk of viral transmission, assuming that everyone wears proper face coverings. (Keep in mind that the fifteen-minute time estimate is cumulative.)

Groups meeting in class can also set up virtual meetings through Zoom while maintaining physical distances of at least six feet. instructors can set up these meetings as breakout groups and be able to virtually visit the groups as they meet, or students can set up their own meetings. Virtual student group meetings can accommodate students who attend class remotely. The advantage of using class time for such meetings is to assure instructors that students are in fact meeting and to have the instructor available to assist groups in their work.

When possible, instructors may also consider having student groups meet outside. Fall provides some of the nicest weather and outdoor spaces offer the ability to spread out in conditions less conducive to viral transmission. If an instructor will be using small groups that meet face-to-face, they may want to consider keeping the membership of the small groups consistent throughout the semester to minimize the number of unique individuals to which students have direct contact.

How can instructors meet with students individually in class and still maintain social distancing?
Isidore and Zoom both provide chat capabilities that permit private student and instructor conversations, though somewhat less efficiently than verbal conversations. Depending on circumstances, instructors might invite students into the hallway outside of the classroom for a conversation where six foot distances can more easily be maintained while still providing a degree of privacy. While individual conversations that respect social distance guidelines may be problematic during a class meeting the student may be able to stay after class to ask their question or meet with their instructor in a departmental conference room or open classroom before/after class.

What is the recommended way to schedule individual meetings?
This is ultimately up to each instructor to decide what works best for them. For many, it may be simple enough to handle via email. Alternatively, the “Sign up” tool in Isidore is useful for this purpose. Instructors can also create ‘Appointment Slots’ on their Google Calendar or use other tools with which they have experience.

Will students who opt to start online have the ability to switch to return to face to face? Are any students locked in to their mode of instruction (F2F vs Online)?
If students come to campus, the expectation is that they will come to class for in person instruction. Whether students who opt for a remote semester from home can decide to change is up to the Provost and decided on a case-by-case basis. Students who start in-person may have to change for reasons of illness or quarantine.

How should instructors handle office hours?
Instructors are required to provide office hours in support of their classes. Consult with your department to determine the exact amount of hours required. This will likely best be handled through Zoom sessions but individual meetings are allowed in spaces that can allow for proper social distancing. This likely means that individual meetings can not take place in instructor offices and would need to held in department conference rooms or open classroom/meeting spaces.

How should I track pass/fail assignments?
The easiest way to do this is to just add pass/fail assignments to the Gradebook as 1 point items. Then, make sure the item is not included in the course grade calculation. Give students a '1' for a pass and a '0' for a fail. Here's a quick video demonstration of how to do this.



Course Delivery

How can I tell what technology is in my classroom?
The Classroom Technology team created a Classroom Technology Capabilities Spreadsheet that shows what technology will be available in each teaching space at UD in the fall. The spreadsheet also shows the new room capacity for each space.

Can I visit my classroom and try things out?
Yes. Beginning on August 5th, you should be able to swipe into your classrooms. Please note that the technology might not be completely set up at this point. Note: please contact your chair about accessing rooms in buildings that require physical keys.

Are there online resources to help prepare to teach in a classroom?
Yes. UDit has created a great set of resources to help faculty with classroom technology. Specifically, you may want to check out the Pre-Flight Checklist to help you understand how to prepare your room before class begins and watch the Introduction to the Hybrid/Blended Classroom video.

How will I know which students are going to be face-to-face and which will be remote?
Beginning on August 12th, you will be able to see which students will be studying remotely in the fall through the Statistics page within the Roster tool.

What is the best file-type to share with students?
Faculty are encouraged to share files in PDF format, if possible. PDFs can be opened directly in most web browsers and are ideal for viewers on mobile devices that don’t have access to Microsoft Office products.

SensusAccess is a quick self-service tool that faculty and students can use to convert document(s) to formats that are accessible. Users simply upload a file and select the format of the accessible file that they want returned to them via email.

Can remote students just watch the recordings of my live sessions rather than attend the live session?
Zoom cam automatically be set to record all meetings held on the platform and that function may prove useful to all students. However, recordings of class should not predominantly take the place of live class attendance. On occasion, it may be necessary to simply refer one or more students to recordings of class sessions. However, the expectation is that students will attend class sessions either in person or through Zoom. Exceptions to this can be made at the professor’s discretion.

What does Active Learning look like while social distancing?
Louisiana State University has outlined some common active learning strategies and corresponding approaches appropriate for online teaching in both synchronous and asynchronous approaches.

What assessment tools are available in Isidore/at UD?
There are a number of different assessment tools available in Isidore. Asynchronous training modules of some of these assessment tools are available on the Keep Teaching site. Specifically, formative assessments provide ways for students to measure their progress in the course and instructors to monitor student engagement. Specific tools for designing formative assessments in Isidore include:

In addition to tools found natively within Isidore, there are many great apps that can be linked into an Isidore course site or released through textbook publisher platforms. In addition, there are many ways that the suite of Google products could be used to drive assessment activities.



Testing & Assessment

The Testing & Assessment FAQs were created by the Path Forward Testing & Asssessment subgroup.

What are the online proctoring options the University is considering and when will decisions be made?
Per the message sent to instructors by Paul Benson on July 24th, the University understands that need to proctoring solutions going into the fall semester. The message outlined through three options going into the fall.

  • Zoom "Self-Recording': For lower-stakes tests, we suggest using our current Zoom recording capabilities for exam proctoring. This approach will outline how to instruct students to set their personal Zoom account to "self-record" their test-taking session and submit the recording to their professor for possible review. Please see this guide to help students set up the self-proctored exam.
  • Digital Textbook Proctoring: For those courses that are using a digital textbook, there may be an option to enhance the digital packet with an online proctoring service. These proctoring services offer recorded test sessions with artificial intelligence (AI) that flags suspicious behavior for possible review by the instructor. The Bookstore is in the process of identifying all eligible courses for this service and will be communicating this information to departments soon. We intend to absorb the added costs of digital textbook proctoring into the university budget. Faculty using digital textbook proctoring will use the publisher's site as the testing platform.
  • Isidore-integrated Proctoring: We are currently reviewing proctoring solutions that would integrate into Isidore's Tests & Quizzes tool. The goal will be to provide an automated and recorded proctoring experience for students with AI-flagging similar to what the textbook publishers offer. We are working aggressively on this solution since it will likely offer the most effective and convenient method for managing online testing.

The university is also working on a plan to offer larger spaces that can be scheduled on Friday afternoons and Saturdays where faculty could bring their entire class together for an in-person proctored exam.

How can I mitigate cheating in online assessments?
Please see our guide to minimize cheating using the features within Isidore's Tests & Quizzes tool.

How can I set up extended time assessments?
Please see our step-by-step instructions.

How can I create a random draw from question pools?
Please see our help documentation.

How can I export and import Tests & Quizzes?
Please see this 3 minute video.

How can I get help creating my tests?
Please complete the exam building request form, and someone from eLearning will build the test in Isidore on your behalf. PLEASE NOTE: We highly suggest getting your tests in as soon as possible so we can have plenty of time to build them.


Isidore Template Sites

How do I unpublish my Isidore sites?

  1. Navigate to the Site Info tool in your site
  2. Click on the Manage Access tab
  3. Click on "Leave as Draft"
  4. Click on "Update"
  5. Please note that if you unpublish your site, you will need to click on the Publish button to make it available to your students again.


How do I unhide the Resources in my site?

  1. Navigate to the Site Info tool
  2. Click on the Manage Tools tab
  3. Click on the Gear icon next to the tool
  4. Click on Make Tool Visible to Students
  5. Click Save


How do I add the Academic Calendar to my site?

  1. Download this file to your computer: https://isidore.udayton.edu/access/calendar/ical/academiccalendar.ics.
  2. Go to the Calendar tool in Isidore
  3. Click on the Import Events tab
  4. Click on the iCalendar option
  5. Press Continue
  6. Locate the Calendar file on your computer
  7. Press Continue
  8. Press Import Events


How do I add someone to my Isidore site?

  1. Navigate to the Site Info tool
  2. Click on the Add Participants button
  3. Click 'yes' for does the person have a UD email
  4. Enter the person's UD username --- not email (e.g. "jmorgan2", not "jmorgan2@udayton.edu")
  5. Press Continue
  6. Select the role you want the person to have (Student, TA-Grading, Instructor, etc.)
  7. Press Finish


How can I merge two template rosters/sites together?
Please email elearning@udayton.edu, and we will merge rosters together into a single site for you.

Do I have to use the template site?
No. However, we do highly recommend that you review the Course Facilitation and Engagement Guidelines and adhere to those guidelines as much as possible. If you would like to have the template site deleted so you can create sites yourself, please complete this form, and we will remove them.

How can I import content that I've previously used in older Isidore sites?
Please see our training module about importing content for instructions. NOTE: In order to import content from Tests & Quizzes, you MUST have drafts of your Tests & Quizzes in the site. If you have recently deleted drafts of tests, you may be able to restore them from the Trash tab within the Tests & Quizzes tool.

How do I add a video to the course Homepage? Please see this 2 minute video demonstration.

How do I changes the dates on the weekly lessons?
Please see this 2 minute video.

The buttons in Manage Groups aren't working. How can that be fixed?
Please clear your browser's cache.

How do I handle multiple instructors/sections within a single site?
Most of the tools within Isidore let you release content to specific rosters. This quick video demonstrates how you can handle multiple sections/instructors within a single Isidore site. For Zoom meetings, you can just schedule meetings with titles like "PHY 101 Section 01" and "PHY 101 Section 02".

What do all the buttons in the Lessons tool do?
This video walks through all the buttons you might use in the Lessons tool in the template site.

How do I add my Student Success Network Calendar to Isidore? Please see this guide that provides instructions on how to add the SSN link to your Isidore course site.


Can I see an example of the template site?
Sure! Follow these step to join an example of a template site in Isidore.



Classroom Guidance

How do I distribute or return materials to students while in class?
Whenever possible, please consider sharing and receiving of materials in electronic format. For materials that are difficult to type, students can use free scanning apps (e.g., Scannable or Genius Scan) that produce pdf files of hand written notes and assignments which can then be submitted electronically through Isidore. Not only is this a sustainability improvement, it does cut down on the handling of print materials. According to study done by OCLC, the virus can live on printed materials for up to three days.

Many students use public printers at the library or other locations on campus, where multiple people touch printer controls and that could serve as transmission points. This is another reason favoring electronic submissions.

As for handling materials touched by others, current medical guidance is that viral transmission by this route occurs less frequently than through respiratory infection. However, as always, instructors and students should use appropriate hand sanitizers after handling materials touched by others and avoid touching their faces. These guidelines could change.

Am I required to use my classroom during every assigned meeting?
Instructors should be interacting with students synchronously during scheduled class times, and should make every effort to ensure opportunities for each student to meet with all students on an in-person basis at least once a week. Within that framework, instructors retain broad discretion to determine the modality of each scheduled class meeting. As an example, an instructor teaching a MWF course may elect to meet with half of their on-campus students in-person on Monday, the other half of their on-campus students in-person on Wednesday, and then elect to hold Friday’s class session for everyone through Zoom.


Communication

How do I notify students what group they are in?
The goal of the notification is to avoid having all students show up on the first day of class only to have half sent away. Thus, assignment to groups and communication of those assignments to students should be done well before the semester starts, repeated several times prior to the start of class, and communicated through several channels, such as regular UD email, email through Isidore, and prominent posts on course Isidore pages.

What is the best way to communicate with students?
Individual communication between a student and an instructor is likely best handled via campus Gmail accounts while class-wide messages are best posted as ‘Announcements’ inside the course Isidore site. Instructors should share their communication plan with students in their syllabus so that they understand where to look for course communications, how best to ask class questions, and what the expected response time may be.

Am I allowed to email a student at their personal email address?
All messages to students must be sent to their UD email addresses. It's the only way the instructor can be sure that the student is the actual person receiving the message. Also, UD email accounts are FERPA compliant. Other email addresses are not. Instructors that receive messages from students through their personal email addresses should ask the student to email from their UD account before responding.


Video Creation

What's the best way to create lecture videos?
Choose whatever software you are most familiar with, either Snagit or Zoom. Both of these programs let you record yourself, your mic, and your screen.

If you would like someone to record you in-person for a special video please schedule contact with Aidan Curran (acurran1@udayton.edu) in the Office of eLearning.


What is the best way to share lecture videos with students
Instructors are encouraged to upload their videos to the Warpwire Video tool in their course Isidore site.

Does UD have a site license for Camtasia or other video editing software?
No. The university does have licenses for Snagit, which has similar functionality. Contact elearning@udayton.edu for a Snagit license. UD Users that want to purchase their own copy of Camtasia can do so on their educational technology page for a discounted rate. Movavi Screen Recorder Studio is similar to Camtasia but is much cheaper to purchase individually. Both Camtasia and Movavi offer free trials for anyone looking to download and test them out.

How can I show a film online?
If you need help showing a film that you own on DVD or VHS during online please contact Chris Tangeman (ctangeman1@udayton.edu) in Roesch Library. Please provide him the name of the film(s) you would like to show to your class, along with the course and section number. Chris will do his best to procure an online version of the film(s) for your classes through one of our online content providers. It is important to note that not all films are available from these sources, so some requests may not be able to be filled.

How can my students create videos and share those with the class?
First, you should change your Warpwire Library settings to allow students to upload. Then, send your students instructions for how you would like them to create their presentation and where to post it. Here are written instructions and a video guide.


Attendance

How can I see who attended my Zoom meeting?
See this two minute demo video.

What is the best way to take attendance for large sections?
Instructors have the ability to view an auto-generated attendance report after a Zoom session ends that includes the name of each user that joined the session and how long they were present. The ‘Report’ link for each meeting can be found under the ‘Previous Meetings’ tab within the Zoom Meetings tool in Isidore. This saves the instructor from having to take attendance during class.

Alternative approaches could include:

  • Using the ‘Attendance tool in Isidore. This would require the instructor to mark students present. It could be used live during class or after-the-fact by consulting a secondary source (Zoom Reports, Google Form submissions, etc.)

Can instructors expect in-person attendance for on-campus students?
Yes. Instructors can expect students that are on-campus during the fall to attend class in-person but some flexibility will likely be needed. There may also come times where an on-campus student needs to quarantine and will be forced to miss class or attend remotely through Zoom.

What advice is given regarding an attendance policy?
Instructors have always had a great deal of latitude when it comes to their attendance policies. In general, instructors can expect students who are healthy and not under quarantine to attend class. With that said, instructors should consider several important factors regarding attendance and health. If instructors have very strict attendance requirements, these requirements may actually encourage a sick student to attend class so that they aren’t penalized. Attendance policies should not wind up making other people sick. Students that are experiencing any symptoms should be encouraged to go to the Health Center. As general advice, Instructors are encouraged to explain the purpose of their attendance policy to students in their syllabus to reinforce the value and rationale behind their policy.

Can remote students just watch the recordings of my live sessions rather than attend the live session?
Zoom cam automatically be set to record all meetings held on the platform and that function may prove useful to all students. However, recordings of class should not predominantly take the place of live class attendance. On occasion, it may be necessary to simply refer one or more students to recordings of class sessions. However, the expectation is that students will attend class sessions either in person or through Zoom. Exceptions to this can be made at the professor’s discretion.


Zoom

How can I download the Chat file?
The Chat file currently cannot be downloaded from within your Zoom meeting due to a security issue. If you are recording the meeting to the Cloud, the chat messages will be saved as one of the files included with the recording.

How can I copy and paste in the Chat?
Unfortunately, copy and paste does not currently work in the Chat because we had to turn off the ability to download chat for security reasons. You can click on the links in the Chat or take screenshots of it.

I really need to be able to download the Chat. How can I enable it?
You can turn on the setting to the download the chat. However, we highly recommend disabling private chats and/or letting students know that their private chats can be viewed by others. a quick demo video.

How can I change what's being recorded by Zoom? Speaker view isn't what I want recorded.
Users can log into their UD Zoom accounts at https://udayton.zoom.us and change what views are being recorded by Zoom. This video outlines the steps to follow to adjust your recording settings for future meetings.

How can my students see my recordings? They're getting an error message.
Students must first log in to go.udayton.edu/zoom in order to see your recordings in Isidore. Please send them this guide, and that should enable them to see the recordings.

How can I see who attended my Zoom meeting?
See this two minute demo video.

How can I trim my recording?
You can trim the ends and beginnings of your recordings. Please see this 2 minute demo video. If you need to cut out segments in the middle of videos, you will need to use a more advanced video editing software like Snagit.

How can I set up polls in Zoom?
Please see this demonstration video.

How can I see who watched my Zoom recordings?
Please see this one minute demo video.

What's the best way to schedule Office Hours with Zoom?
Please see our quick video that provides a few options for how to set up Office Hours with Zoom.

How can I schedule Zoom appointments and Office Hours in Google Calendar?
Please see this video that demonstrates how to use appointment slots and Zoom within Google Calendar, and then post that appointment calendar in Isidore.

How can I schedule Zoom sessions for multiple rosters within my Isidore site?
Please see this video that demonstrates how we recommend approaching this.

Zoom doesn't let me schedule my meeting that starts at 9:05 AM. It only lets me schedule at 9:00 AM. What should I do?
Just choose the 9:00 AM option. All this means is that students can technically join the meeting room 5 minutes prior to class beginning - which is actually nice. It's equivalent to a student showing up in the classroom early. As for the meeting ending time, you can choose the Zoom timeslot that is before your actual Zoom meeting end time. The Zoom room will not close at this time - it just means that the button to 'join' the meeting will disappear at that time.

Can I require that students turn on their webcams in Zoom?
While this decision is ultimately up to each individual instructor it’s generally acceptable to require that students turn on their webcams during Zoom sessions. Students are required to have working webcams and microphones on their computers this fall. With that said, instructors should be aware that some students may be unable to turn their webcam on at all times (for good reason) and that it could shine a light on certain inequities between students with them having to reveal their location/background. Instructors should be clear about their expectations in Zoom with their students from the beginning. Try not to focus on making them have their webcam on to focus their attention but instead how it will benefit the class experience.

What is the best practice/protocol if a student experiences technical difficulties (Wifi, application issues, hardware issues) while attending class via Zoom?
Students that experience technical difficulties should be directed to the UDit Service Center (937-229-3888 or itservicecenter@udayton.edu). While it can be expected that some students will experience issues during the semester the key is to not let it become a trend. The student should not be penalized for missing a single class because of a bad internet connection or hardware failure that they have little control over but it would be fair for the instructor to ask the student how they might be able to avoid similar issues moving forward.

Recording class Zoom sessions is a great way to allow a student that has technology issues during a class period to catch up on what they’ve missed.

Depending on the attendance policy, instructors may ask students that will miss class (or get kicked off during class) for technological reasons to send them an email alerting them to their absence and complete a quick summary of the important points after watching the class session recording.

Will classrooms be equipped with cameras that will follow me as I move around? Where are the microphones located and how far can I get from them and still be heard?
Classrooms are not equipped with cameras that will follow instructors. All classroom cameras are fixed to the podium, which means that instructors should be prepared to deliver their content from behind the podium. The microphones are built-in to the webcams and will not work well if the faculty member moves farther than 6-8 feet from them. It will be important for instructors to check with remote students periodically each class to ensure they can hear the class.

What is the recommended method of having students joining Zoom sessions?
Instructors are encouraged to add their Zoom sessions in the Zoom Meetings tool located in their Isidore site. This gives students a central and consistent spot to join Zoom sessions and access past Zoom session recordings which automatically populate back into the Isidore Zoom Meetings tool. Instructors can also access their UD Zoom account outside of Isidore at https://go.udayton.edu/zoom. Instructors will need to share meeting URLs with students for any meetings created outside of Isidore.

What are the passcodes within Zoom meetings?
Please see our Zoom_FAQs about the passcodes.

How do I set up pre-assigned breakout rooms?
Please see our step-by-step guide and our demo video. Feel free to send this guide to your students to help them get started.

How can I stop students from annotating while I am sharing something with them (ppt, whiteboard, website, etc.)?
Non-hosts in Zoom (students) have the ability to annotate by default in Zoom. Instructors can disable annotations at any time. Please see this 2 minute demo video for how to disable annotations in a Zoom meeting.

How can I see the Participants and Chat windows while sharing my screen in a Zoom meeting?
The key is keep whatever you're sharing from taking up the whole screen so that you will have some real estate to open the Participants and Chat windows up without having them overlap your content. Please see this 2 minute demo video on how to manage this in a Zoom meeting.

Student Resources

What resources do students have for this semester?
Front and center on every students homepage of Isidore, there is a link to our Keep Learning website that provides students with information about blended course delivery, technical help resources, and learning support resources.

How can students add videos to my class?
First, make sure your Warpwire Library is set up to allow students to upload videos. Then, share with your students the written instructions for uploading videos and and/or the video instructions for uploading videos.


Course Planning

How do I know if I'm ready to start the fall semester?
Please read through the Faculty Readiness Checklist prepared by the Office of the Provost. It contains information and multiple checklists aimed at helping faculty prepare their courses, prepare for the classroom, and prepare for their students.

Are there any guidelines I need to follow in delivering my course this fall
Yes. You are encouraged to review the Fall 2020 Course Facilitation & Engagement Guidelines.

Can my course be offered fully asynchronously?
In general, the answer is no. The University expects that all classes will be delivered synchronously, whether online or in person. Certainly, instructors may need to rely on recorded materials to deliver some course content. However, this should not take away from students engaging synchronously with instructors and classmates.

Is there a standard template for course syllabi?
The Office of eLearning has created a Flexible Teaching Syllabus Template that faculty are encouraged to download and review. The template syllabus contains all of UD’s policies and campus services for students as well as many elements that will assist faculty in properly planning their course to support flexible teaching this fall.

Do the new reduced classroom capacities include the instructor?
They do not include instructors. This means that if an instructor is teaching in a room with a capacity of 20 they are allowed to have 20 students PLUS the instructor in the room. TAs and the like will need to be viewed as ‘students’ when considering how many can attend.

When will fall Isidore sites be made available to students?
To ensure that students have access to any potential grouping or attendance information ahead of the first day of classes the Office of eLearning will publish all fall sites at 8 AM on Thursday, August 20th. Instructors are welcome to make their sites available earlier by clicking on the ‘Publish Now’ button in the yellow bar at the top of their site.

How do I know if I have everything ready in my Isidore sites?
The Office of eLearning has created an Isidore Readiness Checklist. It provides a high-level overview of the steps faculty should take to prepare each of their Isidore course sites for the fall term.

Do I have to use 11:55 PM as the due times? Do I have to use Sundays at my due dates?
No. What matters most is establishing a consistent schedule throughout the semester. Choose dates and times that make most sense for YOU and for your classes. We recommend no more than 2 due dates per week, and keep those dates and times consistent as much as possible. You may want to schedule due dates on days when you know you can be available to answer last minute questions.

How should I handle holidays?
Try to avoid putting due dates on holidays, but remember that if you have given students plenty of time to complete the assignments, there shouldn’t be a need to change your schedule just because there are holidays.

Do I have to break my course down on a week-by-week basis?
We do recommend using the week-by-week template, but if you break down your content in chunks of 2 weeks, that’s fine, too. Just be consistent and clear with your due dates. Here’s a video that shows you how to adjust the template into 2 week chunks.

Where do I need to add dates? It looks like there’s a lot of spots for dates.
There are 3 spots where you will need to add dates throughout the template site. Here’s a 2 minute video demonstrating where the dates need to be entered.